Natural Sciences Managers

Overview
Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Experience

Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.

Education

Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).

Job Training

Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.

Examples

These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields.

Salary Salary

Salary at 10th Percentile: $71K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $101K
Median Salary: $137K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $190K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $208K

Demand
Career Demand by State Career Demand by State Legend
Core Tasks

Hire, supervise, or evaluate engineers, technicians, researchers, or other staff.

Design or coordinate successive phases of problem analysis, solution proposals, or testing.

Plan or direct research, development, or production activities.

Provide for stewardship of plant or animal resources or habitats, studying land use, monitoring animal populations, or providing shelter, resources, or medical treatment for animals.

Review project activities and prepare and review research, testing, or operational reports.

Confer with scientists, engineers, regulators, or others to plan or review projects or to provide technical assistance.

Develop client relationships and communicate with clients to explain proposals, present research findings, establish specifications, or discuss project status.

Determine scientific or technical goals within broad outlines provided by top management and make detailed plans to accomplish these goals.

Prepare project proposals.

Develop or implement policies, standards, or procedures for the architectural, scientific, or technical work performed to ensure regulatory compliance or operations enhancement.

Recruit personnel or oversee the development or maintenance of staff competence.

Conduct own research in field of expertise.

Prepare and administer budgets, approve and review expenditures, and prepare financial reports.

Develop innovative technology or train staff for its implementation.

Make presentations at professional meetings to further knowledge in the field.

Advise or assist in obtaining patents or meeting other legal requirements.

Technology Skills
Technology
Example
Hot Technology
Analytical or scientific software
The MathWorks MATLAB
Data base management system software
Oracle DBMS
Data base reporting software
SAP Business Objects
Data base user interface and query software
Structured query language SQL
Development environment software
Integrated development environment IDE software
Document management software
Adobe Acrobat
Electronic mail software
Microsoft Outlook
Enterprise resource planning ERP software
SAP software
Graphics or photo imaging software
Microsoft Visio
Internet browser software
Web browser software
Map creation software
ESRI ArcGIS software
Office suite software
Microsoft Office
Presentation software
Microsoft PowerPoint
Project management software
Microsoft SharePoint
Spreadsheet software
Microsoft Excel
Word processing software
Microsoft Word
Tools Used
Tool
Example
Audio and visual presentation and composing equipment
Liquid crystal display LCD video projectors
Components for information technology or broadcasting or telecommunications
Universal serial bus USB flash drives
Computer Equipment and Accessories
Color plotters
Top 10 Knowledge Required
Biology
81%
Importance

Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.

English Language
80%
Importance

Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.

Administration and Management
77%
Importance

Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.

Computers and Electronics
74%
Importance

Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.

Clerical
72%
Importance

Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.

Chemistry
70%
Importance

Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.

Mathematics
70%
Importance

Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.

Personnel and Human Resources
66%
Importance

Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.

Customer and Personal Service
63%
Importance

Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.

Education and Training
58%
Importance

Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.

Top 10 Skills
Science
83%
Importance

Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.

Active Listening
80%
Importance

Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.

Critical Thinking
80%
Importance

Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.

Monitoring
80%
Importance

Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.

Reading Comprehension
80%
Importance

Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.

Complex Problem Solving
78%
Importance

Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.

Speaking
78%
Importance

Talking to others to convey information effectively.

Writing
78%
Importance

Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.

Judgment and Decision Making
75%
Importance

Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.

Management of Personnel Resources
73%
Importance

Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.

Top 10 Abilities
Written Comprehension
83%
Importance

The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.

Deductive Reasoning
80%
Importance

The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.

Inductive Reasoning
80%
Importance

The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).

Information Ordering
80%
Importance

The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).

Oral Comprehension
80%
Importance

The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.

Oral Expression
80%
Importance

The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.

Written Expression
80%
Importance

The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.

Category Flexibility
78%
Importance

The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.

Problem Sensitivity
78%
Importance

The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.

Speech Clarity
78%
Importance

The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.

Top 10 Work Activities
Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates
92%
Importance

Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.

Making Decisions and Solving Problems
92%
Importance

Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.

Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings
92%
Importance

Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.

Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work
92%
Importance

Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.

Getting Information
91%
Importance

Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.

Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge
91%
Importance

Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.

Analyzing Data or Information
90%
Importance

Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.

Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships
90%
Importance

Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.

Documenting/Recording Information
89%
Importance

Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.

Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
89%
Importance

Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.

Detailed Work Activities

Evaluate employee performance.

Supervise employees.

Hire personnel.

Develop organizational methods or procedures.

Direct organizational operations, projects, or services.

Develop operating strategies, plans, or procedures.

Manage operations, research, or logistics projects.

Analyze data to inform operational decisions or activities.

Prepare operational progress or status reports.

Coordinate operational activities with external stakeholders.

Communicate organizational information to customers or other stakeholders.

Establish interpersonal business relationships to facilitate work activities.

Develop organizational goals or objectives.

Prepare proposals or grant applications to obtain project funding.

Implement organizational process or policy changes.

Develop organizational policies or programs.

Manage human resources activities.

Recruit personnel.

Approve expenditures.

Prepare financial documents, reports, or budgets.

Prepare operational budgets.

Conduct employee training programs.

Present information to the public.

Advise others on legal or regulatory compliance matters.

Work Context
Electronic Mail

How often do you use electronic mail in this job?

Indoors, Environmentally Controlled

How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?

Face-to-Face Discussions

How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?

Importance of Being Exact or Accurate

How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?

Work With Work Group or Team

How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?

Responsibility for Outcomes and Results

How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?

Structured versus Unstructured Work

To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?

Impact of Decisions on Co-workers or Company Results

What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?

Freedom to Make Decisions

How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?

Telephone

How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?

Education
Majors
Major
Engineering Physics/Applied Physics
Operations Research
Biology/Biological Sciences, General
Biochemistry
Biophysics
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biochemistry
Molecular Biophysics
Structural Biology
Photobiology
Radiation Biology/Radiobiology
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Other
Botany/Plant Biology
Plant Pathology/Phytopathology
Plant Physiology
Botany/Plant Biology, Other
Cell/Cellular Biology and Histology
Anatomy
Cell/Cellular and Molecular Biology
Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences, Other
Microbiology, General
Medical Microbiology and Bacteriology
Virology
Parasitology
Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiological Sciences and Immunology, Other
Zoology/Animal Biology
Entomology
Animal Physiology
Zoology/Animal Biology, Other
Molecular Genetics
Animal Genetics
Plant Genetics
Genome Sciences/Genomics
Genetics, Other
Pathology/Experimental Pathology
Aerospace Physiology and Medicine
Pharmacology
Toxicology
Biometry/Biometrics
Biostatistics
Computational Biology
Biomathematics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology, Other
Biotechnology
Ecology
Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography
Evolutionary Biology
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Ecology, Evolution, Systematics and Population Biology, Other
Molecular Medicine
Neuroscience
Neuroanatomy
Neurobiology and Anatomy
Neurobiology and Behavior
Neurobiology and Neurosciences, Other
Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Other
Mathematics, General
Algebra and Number Theory
Analysis and Functional Analysis
Geometry/Geometric Analysis
Topology and Foundations
Mathematics, Other
Applied Mathematics, General
Computational Mathematics
Computational and Applied Mathematics
Financial Mathematics
Mathematical Biology
Applied Mathematics, Other
Statistics, General
Mathematics and Statistics
Statistics, Other
Applied Statistics, General
Mathematics and Statistics, Other
Biological and Physical Sciences
Mathematics and Computer Science
Biopsychology
Science, Technology and Society
Natural Sciences
Nutrition Sciences
Cognitive Science, General
Cognitive Science, Other
Human Biology
Computational Science
Marine Sciences
Sustainability Studies
Anthrozoology
Climate Science
Earth Systems Science
Environmental Geosciences
Geobiology
Geography and Environmental Studies
Mathematical Economics
Mathematics and Atmospheric/Oceanic Science
Data Science, General
Data Science, Other
Logic
Physical Sciences, General
Astronomy
Astrophysics
Planetary Astronomy and Science
Astronomy and Astrophysics, Other
Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, General
Atmospheric Chemistry and Climatology
Atmospheric Physics and Dynamics
Meteorology
Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology, Other
Chemistry, General
Analytical Chemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry
Polymer Chemistry
Chemical Physics
Environmental Chemistry
Forensic Chemistry
Theoretical Chemistry
Cheminformatics/Chemistry Informatics
Chemistry, Other
Geology/Earth Science, General
Geochemistry
Geophysics and Seismology
Paleontology
Hydrology and Water Resources Science
Geochemistry and Petrology
Oceanography, Chemical and Physical
Geological and Earth Sciences/Geosciences, Other
Physics, General
Atomic/Molecular Physics
Elementary Particle Physics
Plasma and High-Temperature Physics
Nuclear Physics
Optics/Optical Sciences
Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Acoustics
Theoretical and Mathematical Physics
Physics, Other
Materials Chemistry
Materials Sciences, Other
Physics and Astronomy
Physical Sciences, Other
Medical Science/Scientist
Clinical and Industrial Drug Development
Research and Development Management
Research Administration
Science/Technology Management
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Interests
Enterprising
100%
Importance

Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.

Investigative
77%
Importance

Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.

Conventional
43%
Importance

Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

Realistic
43%
Importance

Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

Social
24%
Importance

Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

Artistic
19%
Importance

Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

Top 10 Work Styles
Integrity
93%
Importance

Job requires being honest and ethical.

Attention to Detail
90%
Importance

Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Cooperation
88%
Importance

Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.

Dependability
88%
Importance

Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Persistence
88%
Importance

Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Adaptability/Flexibility
87%
Importance

Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.

Analytical Thinking
87%
Importance

Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

Initiative
87%
Importance

Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.

Leadership
87%
Importance

Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.

Self Control
86%
Importance

Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.

Work Values
Independence
86%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Working Conditions
84%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Achievement
77%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Support
77%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

Recognition
72%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

Relationships
48%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.