Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields.
Salary at 10th Percentile: $71K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $101K
Median Salary: $137K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $190K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $208K
Hire, supervise, or evaluate engineers, technicians, researchers, or other staff.
Design or coordinate successive phases of problem analysis, solution proposals, or testing.
Plan or direct research, development, or production activities.
Provide for stewardship of plant or animal resources or habitats, studying land use, monitoring animal populations, or providing shelter, resources, or medical treatment for animals.
Review project activities and prepare and review research, testing, or operational reports.
Confer with scientists, engineers, regulators, or others to plan or review projects or to provide technical assistance.
Develop client relationships and communicate with clients to explain proposals, present research findings, establish specifications, or discuss project status.
Determine scientific or technical goals within broad outlines provided by top management and make detailed plans to accomplish these goals.
Prepare project proposals.
Develop or implement policies, standards, or procedures for the architectural, scientific, or technical work performed to ensure regulatory compliance or operations enhancement.
Recruit personnel or oversee the development or maintenance of staff competence.
Conduct own research in field of expertise.
Prepare and administer budgets, approve and review expenditures, and prepare financial reports.
Develop innovative technology or train staff for its implementation.
Make presentations at professional meetings to further knowledge in the field.
Advise or assist in obtaining patents or meeting other legal requirements.
Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
Talking to others to convey information effectively.
Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job.
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.
The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, to detect or assess problems.
Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
Evaluate employee performance.
Develop organizational methods or procedures.
Direct organizational operations, projects, or services.
Develop operating strategies, plans, or procedures.
Manage operations, research, or logistics projects.
Analyze data to inform operational decisions or activities.
Prepare operational progress or status reports.
Coordinate operational activities with external stakeholders.
Communicate organizational information to customers or other stakeholders.
Establish interpersonal business relationships to facilitate work activities.
Develop organizational goals or objectives.
Prepare proposals or grant applications to obtain project funding.
Implement organizational process or policy changes.
Develop organizational policies or programs.
Manage human resources activities.
Prepare financial documents, reports, or budgets.
Prepare operational budgets.
Conduct employee training programs.
Present information to the public.
Advise others on legal or regulatory compliance matters.
How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
What results do your decisions usually have on other people or the image or reputation or financial resources of your employer?
How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Job requires being honest and ethical.
Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.