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Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists

Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists

Overview
Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Experience

Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.

Education

Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).

Job Training

Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.

Examples

These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.

Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health. Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities.

Salary Salary

Salary at 10th Percentile: $50K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $63K
Median Salary: $91K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $126K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $164K

Demand
Career Demand by State Career Demand by State Legend
Core Tasks

Follow strict safety procedures when handling toxic materials to avoid contamination.

Evaluate effects of drugs, gases, pesticides, parasites, and microorganisms at various levels.

Plan and direct studies to investigate human or animal disease, preventive methods, and treatments for disease.

Prepare and analyze organ, tissue, and cell samples to identify toxicity, bacteria, or microorganisms or to study cell structure.

Standardize drug dosages, methods of immunization, and procedures for manufacture of drugs and medicinal compounds.

Conduct research to develop methodologies, instrumentation, and procedures for medical application, analyzing data and presenting findings to the scientific audience and general public.

Study animal and human health and physiological processes.

Teach principles of medicine and medical and laboratory procedures to physicians, residents, students, and technicians.

Write and publish articles in scientific journals.

Write applications for research grants.

Investigate cause, progress, life cycle, or mode of transmission of diseases or parasites.

Use equipment such as atomic absorption spectrometers, electron microscopes, flow cytometers, or chromatography systems.

Confer with health departments, industry personnel, physicians, and others to develop health safety standards and public health improvement programs.

Consult with and advise physicians, educators, researchers, and others regarding medical applications of physics, biology, and chemistry.

Technology Skills
Technology
Example
Hot Technology
Analytical or scientific software
Minitab
Data base user interface and query software
Waters Empower 2
Desktop publishing software
Microsoft Publisher
Development environment software
National Instruments LabVIEW
Electronic mail software
IBM Notes
Enterprise resource planning ERP software
Microsoft Dynamics
Graphics or photo imaging software
Adobe Systems Adobe Photoshop
Information retrieval or search software
LexisNexis
Map creation software
ESRI ArcGIS software
Object or component oriented development software
Python
Office suite software
Microsoft Office
Operating system software
UNIX
Presentation software
Microsoft PowerPoint
Project management software
Microsoft Project
Spreadsheet software
Microsoft Excel
Word processing software
Microsoft Word
Tools Used
Tool
Example
Computer Equipment and Accessories
Desktop computers
Laboratory and scientific equipment
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA synthesizers
Laboratory supplies and fixtures
Erlenmeyer flasks
Measuring and observing and testing instruments
Electrical conductivity meters
Medical diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine products
Bone ultrasound densitometers
Medical sterilization products
Autoclaves
Patient exam and monitoring products
Electrocardiography EKG machines
Top 10 Knowledge Required
Biology
94%
Importance

Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.

English Language
83%
Importance

Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.

Medicine and Dentistry
74%
Importance

Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.

Chemistry
69%
Importance

Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.

Mathematics
65%
Importance

Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.

Computers and Electronics
60%
Importance

Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.

Administration and Management
57%
Importance

Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.

Education and Training
57%
Importance

Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.

Clerical
43%
Importance

Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.

Physics
43%
Importance

Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.

Top 10 Skills
Writing
85%
Importance

Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.

Active Learning
83%
Importance

Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.

Science
83%
Importance

Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.

Speaking
83%
Importance

Talking to others to convey information effectively.

Active Listening
80%
Importance

Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.

Critical Thinking
80%
Importance

Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.

Judgment and Decision Making
80%
Importance

Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.

Reading Comprehension
80%
Importance

Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.

Complex Problem Solving
78%
Importance

Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.

Systems Analysis
75%
Importance

Determining how a system should work and how changes in conditions, operations, and the environment will affect outcomes.

Top 10 Abilities
Inductive Reasoning
83%
Importance

The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).

Oral Expression
83%
Importance

The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.

Written Expression
83%
Importance

The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.

Category Flexibility
80%
Importance

The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways.

Deductive Reasoning
80%
Importance

The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.

Information Ordering
80%
Importance

The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).

Oral Comprehension
80%
Importance

The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.

Speech Clarity
80%
Importance

The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.

Written Comprehension
80%
Importance

The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.

Problem Sensitivity
78%
Importance

The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.

Top 10 Work Activities
Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge
92%
Importance

Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.

Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates
90%
Importance

Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.

Thinking Creatively
87%
Importance

Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.

Getting Information
86%
Importance

Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.

Making Decisions and Solving Problems
86%
Importance

Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.

Interacting With Computers
85%
Importance

Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.

Analyzing Data or Information
83%
Importance

Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.

Documenting/Recording Information
82%
Importance

Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.

Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
82%
Importance

Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.

Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work
82%
Importance

Developing specific goals and plans to prioritize, organize, and accomplish your work.

Detailed Work Activities

Prepare scientific or technical reports or presentations.

Write grant proposals.

Prepare proposals or grant applications to obtain project funding.

Plan biological research.

Direct medical science or healthcare programs.

Monitor operational procedures in technical environments to ensure conformance to standards.

Research diseases or parasites.

Instruct college students in physical or life sciences.

Analyze biological samples.

Establish standards for medical care.

Establish standards for products, processes, or procedures.

Advise others on healthcare matters.

Operate laboratory or field equipment.

Work Context
Electronic Mail

How often do you use electronic mail in this job?

Indoors, Environmentally Controlled

How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?

Work With Work Group or Team

How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?

Face-to-Face Discussions

How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?

Contact With Others

How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?

Wear Common Protective or Safety Equipment such as Safety Shoes, Glasses, Gloves, Hearing Protection, Hard Hats, or Life Jackets

How much does this job require wearing common protective or safety equipment such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets?

Importance of Being Exact or Accurate

How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?

Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls

How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?

Freedom to Make Decisions

How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?

Level of Competition

To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?

Education
Majors
Major
Biology, General
Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Cell/Cellular Biology and Anatomical Sciences
Microbiological Sciences and Immunology
Genetics
Physiology, Pathology and Related Sciences
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Biomathematics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology
Ecology, Evolution, Systematics, and Population Biology
Molecular Medicine
Neurobiology and Neurosciences
Biopsychology
Gerontology
Research and Experimental Psychology
Anthropology
Medical Clinical Sciences/Graduate Medical Studies
Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Administration
Public Health
Combined Medical Residency/Fellowship Programs
Multiple-Pathway Medical Fellowship Programs
Allergy and Immunology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Anesthesiology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Dermatology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Emergency Medicine Residency/Fellowship Programs
Family Medicine Residency/Fellowship Programs
Internal Medicine Residency/Fellowship Programs
Medical Genetics and Genomics Residency/Fellowship Programs
Neurological Surgery Residency/Fellowship Programs
Neurology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Nuclear Medicine Residency/Fellowship Programs
Obstetrics and Gynecology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Ophthalmology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Orthopedic Surgery Residency/Fellowship Programs
Osteopathic Medicine Residency/Fellowship Programs
Otolaryngology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Pathology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Pediatrics Residency/Fellowship Programs
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residency/Fellowship Programs
Plastic Surgery Residency/Fellowship Programs
Podiatric Medicine Residency/Fellowship Programs
Preventive Medicine Residency/Fellowship Programs
Psychiatry Residency/Fellowship Programs
Radiation Oncology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Radiology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Surgery Residency/Fellowship Programs
Urology Residency/Fellowship Programs
Medical Residency/Fellowship Programs, Other
Interests
Investigative
100%
Importance

Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.

Artistic
62%
Importance

Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

Realistic
62%
Importance

Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

Social
58%
Importance

Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

Conventional
34%
Importance

Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

Enterprising
24%
Importance

Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.

Top 10 Work Styles
Analytical Thinking
91%
Importance

Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

Innovation
89%
Importance

Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

Integrity
88%
Importance

Job requires being honest and ethical.

Attention to Detail
86%
Importance

Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Achievement/Effort
84%
Importance

Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.

Cooperation
83%
Importance

Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.

Initiative
83%
Importance

Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.

Dependability
82%
Importance

Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Persistence
81%
Importance

Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Adaptability/Flexibility
79%
Importance

Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.

Work Values
Achievement
81%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Independence
81%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Recognition
81%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

Working Conditions
79%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Relationships
62%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

Support
48%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.