Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.
Conduct research into physical phenomena, develop theories on the basis of observation and experiments, and devise methods to apply physical laws and theories.
Salary at 10th Percentile: $67K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $95K
Median Salary: $129K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $170K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $208K
Perform complex calculations as part of the analysis and evaluation of data, using computers.
Analyze data from research conducted to detect and measure physical phenomena.
Describe and express observations and conclusions in mathematical terms.
Design computer simulations to model physical data so that it can be better understood.
Write research proposals to receive funding.
Report experimental results by writing papers for scientific journals or by presenting information at scientific conferences.
Teach physics to students.
Conduct research pertaining to potential environmental impacts of atomic energy-related industrial development to determine licensing qualifications.
Observe the structure and properties of matter, and the transformation and propagation of energy, using equipment such as masers, lasers, and telescopes, to explore and identify the basic principles governing these phenomena.
Develop theories and laws on the basis of observation and experiments, and apply these theories and laws to problems in areas such as nuclear energy, optics, and aerospace technology.
Collaborate with other scientists in the design, development, and testing of experimental, industrial, or medical equipment, instrumentation, and procedures.
Develop standards of permissible concentrations of radioisotopes in liquids and gases.
Conduct application evaluations and analyze results to determine commercial, industrial, scientific, medical, military, or other uses for electro-optical devices.
Develop manufacturing, assembly, and fabrication processes of lasers, masers, infrared, and other light-emitting and light-sensitive devices.
Advise authorities of procedures to be followed in radiation incidents or hazards, and assist in civil defense planning.
Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
Knowledge of design techniques, tools, and principles involved in production of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
Using mathematics to solve problems.
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
Talking to others to convey information effectively.
Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly.
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
Apply mathematical principles or statistical approaches to solve problems in scientific or applied fields.
Analyze geological or geographical data.
Prepare scientific or technical reports or presentations.
Develop theories or models of physical phenomena.
Collaborate on research activities with scientists or technical specialists.
Operate laboratory or field equipment.
Instruct college students in physical or life sciences.
Develop new or advanced products or production methods.
Analyze operational data to evaluate operations, processes or products.
Establish standards for products, processes, or procedures.
Research environmental impact of industrial or development activities.
Advise others on management of emergencies or hazardous situations or materials.
Prepare proposals or grant applications to obtain project funding.
How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
How much does this job require sitting?
How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
Job requires being honest and ethical.
Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.