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Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers

Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers

Overview
Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Experience

Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.

Education

Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).

Job Training

Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.

Examples

These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.

Conduct hearings to recommend or make decisions on claims concerning government programs or other government-related matters. Determine liability, sanctions, or penalties, or recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or settlements.

Salary Salary

Salary at 10th Percentile: $47K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $65K
Median Salary: $97K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $131K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $180K

Demand
Career Demand by State Career Demand by State Legend
Core Tasks

Determine existence and amount of liability according to current laws, administrative and judicial precedents, and available evidence.

Monitor and direct the activities of trials and hearings to ensure that they are conducted fairly and that courts administer justice while safeguarding the legal rights of all involved parties.

Prepare written opinions and decisions.

Authorize payment of valid claims and determine method of payment.

Conduct hearings to review and decide claims regarding issues, such as social program eligibility, environmental protection, or enforcement of health and safety regulations.

Research and analyze laws, regulations, policies, and precedent decisions to prepare for hearings and to determine conclusions.

Review and evaluate data on documents, such as claim applications, birth or death certificates, or physician or employer records.

Recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or compromise settlements according to laws, regulations, policies, and precedent decisions.

Rule on exceptions, motions, and admissibility of evidence.

Explain to claimants how they can appeal rulings that go against them.

Schedule hearings.

Confer with individuals or organizations involved in cases to obtain relevant information.

Issue subpoenas and administer oaths in preparation for formal hearings.

Conduct studies of appeals procedures in field agencies to ensure adherence to legal requirements and to facilitate determination of cases.

Technology Skills
Technology
Example
Hot Technology
Data base user interface and query software
Microsoft Access
Document management software
Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat
Electronic mail software
Microsoft Outlook
Enterprise resource planning ERP software
SAP software
Information retrieval or search software
Thomson Reuters WestLaw
Instant messaging software
Instant messaging software
Internet browser software
Web browser software
Legal management software
Courtroom scheduling software
Office suite software
Microsoft Office
Operating system software
Microsoft Windows
Presentation software
Microsoft PowerPoint
Spreadsheet software
Microsoft Excel
Video conferencing software
Videoconferencing software
Word processing software
Microsoft Word
Tools Used
Tool
Example
Audio and visual presentation and composing equipment
Gavels
Communications Devices and Accessories
Multiline telephone systems
Computer Equipment and Accessories
Personal computers
Consumer electronics
Courtroom microphones
Data Voice or Multimedia Network Equipment or Platforms and Accessories
Teleconferencing equipment
Office machines and their supplies and accessories
Laser facsimile machines
Top 10 Knowledge Required
Law and Government
97%
Importance

Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.

English Language
83%
Importance

Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.

Customer and Personal Service
78%
Importance

Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.

Clerical
69%
Importance

Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.

Medicine and Dentistry
67%
Importance

Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat human injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures.

Administration and Management
66%
Importance

Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.

Computers and Electronics
55%
Importance

Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.

Mathematics
54%
Importance

Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.

Therapy and Counseling
52%
Importance

Knowledge of principles, methods, and procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of physical and mental dysfunctions, and for career counseling and guidance.

Personnel and Human Resources
50%
Importance

Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.

Top 10 Skills
Active Listening
85%
Importance

Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.

Critical Thinking
85%
Importance

Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.

Reading Comprehension
85%
Importance

Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.

Judgment and Decision Making
83%
Importance

Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.

Writing
83%
Importance

Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.

Speaking
80%
Importance

Talking to others to convey information effectively.

Complex Problem Solving
78%
Importance

Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.

Social Perceptiveness
78%
Importance

Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.

Active Learning
75%
Importance

Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.

Monitoring
73%
Importance

Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.

Top 10 Abilities
Inductive Reasoning
85%
Importance

The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).

Oral Comprehension
85%
Importance

The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.

Written Comprehension
85%
Importance

The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.

Deductive Reasoning
83%
Importance

The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.

Written Expression
83%
Importance

The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.

Oral Expression
80%
Importance

The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.

Problem Sensitivity
80%
Importance

The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.

Speech Clarity
78%
Importance

The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.

Information Ordering
75%
Importance

The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).

Near Vision
75%
Importance

The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).

Top 10 Work Activities
Getting Information
92%
Importance

Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.

Making Decisions and Solving Problems
92%
Importance

Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.

Evaluating Information to Determine Compliance with Standards
89%
Importance

Using relevant information and individual judgment to determine whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.

Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge
86%
Importance

Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.

Processing Information
84%
Importance

Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.

Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
83%
Importance

Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.

Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others
79%
Importance

Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.

Resolving Conflicts and Negotiating with Others
79%
Importance

Handling complaints, settling disputes, and resolving grievances and conflicts, or otherwise negotiating with others.

Analyzing Data or Information
77%
Importance

Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.

Communicating with Persons Outside Organization
76%
Importance

Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.

Detailed Work Activities

Make decisions in legal cases.

Direct courtroom activities or procedures.

Prepare written decisions for legal proceedings.

Authorize payments to settle legal disputes.

Conduct hearings to investigate legal issues.

Evaluate information related to legal matters in public or personal records.

Research relevant legal materials to aid decision making.

Identify implications for cases from legal precedents or other legal information.

Provide legal advice to clients.

Rule on admissibility of legal proceedings.

Interview claimants to get information related to legal proceedings.

Prepare legal documents.

Administer oaths to court participants.

Coordinate legal schedules or activities.

Work Context
Indoors, Environmentally Controlled

How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?

Spend Time Sitting

How much does this job require sitting?

Electronic Mail

How often do you use electronic mail in this job?

Frequency of Decision Making

How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?

Deal With External Customers

How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?

Telephone

How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?

Letters and Memos

How often does the job require written letters and memos?

Contact With Others

How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?

Importance of Being Exact or Accurate

How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?

Freedom to Make Decisions

How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?

Education
Majors
Major
Interests
Enterprising
96%
Importance

Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.

Investigative
72%
Importance

Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.

Social
58%
Importance

Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

Conventional
48%
Importance

Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

Artistic
43%
Importance

Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

Realistic
15%
Importance

Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

Top 10 Work Styles
Integrity
98%
Importance

Job requires being honest and ethical.

Attention to Detail
95%
Importance

Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Self Control
95%
Importance

Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.

Independence
93%
Importance

Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.

Analytical Thinking
91%
Importance

Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

Dependability
91%
Importance

Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Stress Tolerance
91%
Importance

Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.

Cooperation
89%
Importance

Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.

Concern for Others
85%
Importance

Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.

Achievement/Effort
84%
Importance

Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.

Work Values
Achievement
81%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Recognition
81%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

Working Conditions
79%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Independence
77%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Relationships
67%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

Support
62%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.