Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.
Teach courses pertaining to the laws of matter and energy. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Salary at 10th Percentile: $49K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $64K
Median Salary: $90K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $125K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $169K
Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, assignments, and papers.
Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as quantum mechanics, particle physics, and optics.
Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
Supervise students' laboratory work.
Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
Maintain and repair laboratory equipment.
Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
Act as advisers to student organizations.
Participate in campus and community events.
Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, their interrelationships, and applications to understanding fluid, material, and atmospheric dynamics, and mechanical, electrical, atomic and sub- atomic structures and processes.
Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.
Knowledge of the practical application of engineering science and technology. This includes applying principles, techniques, procedures, and equipment to the design and production of various goods and services.
Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
Teaching others how to do something.
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
Using scientific rules and methods to solve problems.
Talking to others to convey information effectively.
Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
The ability to choose the right mathematical methods or formulas to solve a problem.
The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
Evaluate student work.
Develop instructional materials.
Administer tests to assess educational needs or progress.
Teach physical science or mathematics courses at the college level.
Advise students on academic or career matters.
Supervise student research or internship work.
Guide class discussions.
Maintain student records.
Evaluate effectiveness of educational programs.
Develop instructional objectives.
Supervise laboratory work.
Stay informed about current developments in field of specialization.
Attend training sessions or professional meetings to develop or maintain professional knowledge.
Research topics in area of expertise.
Write articles, books or other original materials in area of expertise.
Select educational materials or equipment.
Order instructional or library materials or equipment.
Direct department activities.
Promote educational institutions or programs.
Perform student enrollment or registration activities.
Serve on institutional or departmental committees.
Write grant proposals.
Compile specialized bibliographies or lists of materials.
Plan community programs or activities for the general public.
Advise educators on curricula, instructional methods, or policies.
How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
Job requires being honest and ethical.
Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.