Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.
Teach courses in communications, such as organizational communications, public relations, radio/television broadcasting, and journalism. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Salary at 10th Percentile: $40K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $54K
Median Salary: $71K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $98K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $137K
Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as public speaking, media criticism, and oral traditions.
Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
Keep abreast of developments and technological advances in the communication field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
Participate in campus and community events.
Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
Act as advisers to student organizations.
Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
Direct theatre productions and projects.
Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions. This includes their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, practices, and their impact on human culture.
Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
Teaching others how to do something.
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
Talking to others to convey information effectively.
Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
The ability to arrange things or actions in a certain order or pattern according to a specific rule or set of rules (e.g., patterns of numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.
Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
Assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
Evaluate student work.
Guide class discussions.
Administer tests to assess educational needs or progress.
Develop instructional materials.
Teach social science courses at the college level.
Maintain student records.
Evaluate effectiveness of educational programs.
Develop instructional objectives.
Advise students on academic or career matters.
Select educational materials or equipment.
Order instructional or library materials or equipment.
Research topics in area of expertise.
Promote educational institutions or programs.
Perform student enrollment or registration activities.
Stay informed about current developments in field of specialization.
Attend training sessions or professional meetings to develop or maintain professional knowledge.
Serve on institutional or departmental committees.
Plan community programs or activities for the general public.
Write articles, books or other original materials in area of expertise.
Direct department activities.
Supervise student research or internship work.
Compile specialized bibliographies or lists of materials.
Write grant proposals.
Direct productions or performances.
Coordinate musical rehearsals or performances.
Advise educators on curricula, instructional methods, or policies.
How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
How important is it to coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities in this job?
How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
How frequently is the worker required to make decisions that affect other people, the financial resources, and/or the image and reputation of the organization?
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
Job requires being sensitive to others' needs and feelings and being understanding and helpful on the job.
Job requires being honest and ethical.
Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.
Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.