News Analysts, Reporters, and Journalists

Overview
Job Zone Four: Considerable Preparation Needed
Experience

A considerable amount of work-related skill, knowledge, or experience is needed for these occupations. For example, an accountant must complete four years of college and work for several years in accounting to be considered qualified.

Education

Most of these occupations require a four-year bachelor's degree, but some do not.

Job Training

Employees in these occupations usually need several years of work-related experience, on-the-job training, and/or vocational training.

Examples

Many of these occupations involve coordinating, supervising, managing, or training others. Examples include real estate brokers, sales managers, database administrators, graphic designers, chemists, art directors, and cost estimators.

Narrate or write news stories, reviews, or commentary for print, broadcast, or other communications media such as newspapers, magazines, radio, or television. May collect and analyze information through interview, investigation, or observation.

Salary Salary

Salary at 10th Percentile: $25K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $32K
Median Salary: $49K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $80K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $127K

Demand
Career Demand by State Career Demand by State Legend
Core Tasks

Write commentaries, columns, or scripts, using computers.

Coordinate and serve as an anchor on news broadcast programs.

Analyze and interpret news and information received from various sources to broadcast the information.

Examine news items of local, national, and international significance to determine topics to address, or obtain assignments from editorial staff members.

Receive assignments or evaluate leads or tips to develop story ideas.

Research a story's background information to provide complete and accurate information.

Arrange interviews with people who can provide information about a story.

Gather information and develop perspectives about news subjects through research, interviews, observation, and experience.

Select material most pertinent to presentation, and organize this material into appropriate formats.

Present news stories, and introduce in-depth videotaped segments or live transmissions from on-the-scene reporters.

Establish and maintain relationships with individuals who are credible sources of information.

Report news stories for publication or broadcast, describing the background and details of events.

Review and evaluate notes taken about news events to isolate pertinent facts and details.

Revise work to meet editorial approval or to fit time or space requirements.

Investigate breaking news developments, such as disasters, crimes, or human-interest stories.

Review written, audio, or video copy, and correct errors in content, grammar, or punctuation, following prescribed editorial style and formatting guidelines.

Report on specialized fields such as medicine, green technology, environmental issues, science, politics, sports, arts, consumer affairs, business, religion, crime, or education.

Determine a published or broadcasted story's emphasis, length, and format, organizing material accordingly.

Transmit news stories or reporting information from remote locations, using equipment such as satellite phones, telephones, fax machines, or modems.

Check reference materials, such as books, news files, or public records, to obtain relevant facts.

Discuss issues with editors to establish priorities or positions.

Photograph or videotape news events.

Present live or recorded commentary via broadcast media.

Take pictures or video, and process them for inclusion in a story.

Conduct taped or filmed interviews or narratives.

Develop ideas or material for columns or commentaries by analyzing and interpreting news, current issues, or personal experiences.

Communicate with readers, viewers, advertisers, or the general public via mail, email, or telephone.

Write online blog entries that address news developments or offer additional information, opinions, or commentary on news events.

Assign stories to other reporters or duties to production staff.

Write columns, editorials, commentaries, or reviews that interpret events or offer opinions.

Technology Skills
Technology
Example
Hot Technology
Analytical or scientific software
IBM SPSS Statistics
Data base user interface and query software
Microsoft SQL Server
Desktop publishing software
Adobe Systems Adobe InDesign
Facilities management software
RCS NexGen Digital
Information retrieval or search software
LexisNexis
Instant messaging software
Twitter
Internet browser software
Web browser software
Map creation software
Mapping software
Music or sound editing software
Audion Laboratories VoxPro
Object oriented data base management software
Microsoft Visual FoxPro
Office suite software
Microsoft Office
Presentation software
Microsoft PowerPoint
Project management software
Desktop Technologies NewsBoss
Spreadsheet software
Microsoft Excel
Video creation and editing software
YouTube
Web page creation and editing software
Social media sites
Web platform development software
Hypertext markup language HTML
Word processing software
Microsoft Word
Tools Used
Tool
Example
Audio and visual presentation and composing equipment
Digital audio workstations
Communications Devices and Accessories
Satellite phones
Components for information technology or broadcasting or telecommunications
Flash disks
Computer Equipment and Accessories
Desktop computers
Consumer electronics
Microphones
Data Voice or Multimedia Network Equipment or Platforms and Accessories
Mobile broadcast units
Office machines and their supplies and accessories
Laser facsimile machines
Photographic or filming or video equipment
High definition HD video cameras
Top 10 Knowledge Required
English Language
97%
Importance

Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.

Communications and Media
95%
Importance

Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.

Law and Government
74%
Importance

Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.

Computers and Electronics
68%
Importance

Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.

Telecommunications
68%
Importance

Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.

Customer and Personal Service
64%
Importance

Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.

Geography
61%
Importance

Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.

Public Safety and Security
60%
Importance

Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people, data, property, and institutions.

History and Archeology
59%
Importance

Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.

Administration and Management
56%
Importance

Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.

Top 10 Skills
Active Listening
83%
Importance

Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.

Reading Comprehension
83%
Importance

Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.

Speaking
83%
Importance

Talking to others to convey information effectively.

Writing
83%
Importance

Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.

Critical Thinking
77%
Importance

Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.

Social Perceptiveness
75%
Importance

Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.

Active Learning
70%
Importance

Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.

Monitoring
69%
Importance

Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.

Time Management
69%
Importance

Managing one's own time and the time of others.

Complex Problem Solving
65%
Importance

Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.

Top 10 Abilities
Speech Clarity
85%
Importance

The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.

Oral Expression
84%
Importance

The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.

Oral Comprehension
83%
Importance

The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.

Written Comprehension
82%
Importance

The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.

Written Expression
80%
Importance

The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.

Speech Recognition
78%
Importance

The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.

Inductive Reasoning
77%
Importance

The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).

Near Vision
75%
Importance

The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).

Originality
74%
Importance

The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.

Problem Sensitivity
73%
Importance

The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.

Top 10 Work Activities
Getting Information
96%
Importance

Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.

Communicating with Persons Outside Organization
90%
Importance

Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.

Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others
87%
Importance

Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.

Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
84%
Importance

Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.

Communicating with Supervisors, Peers, or Subordinates
82%
Importance

Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.

Establishing and Maintaining Interpersonal Relationships
82%
Importance

Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.

Performing for or Working Directly with the Public
79%
Importance

Performing for people or dealing directly with the public. This includes serving customers in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.

Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge
79%
Importance

Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.

Thinking Creatively
78%
Importance

Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.

Documenting/Recording Information
77%
Importance

Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in written or electronic/magnetic form.

Detailed Work Activities

Write informational material.

Report news to the public.

Coordinate reporting or editing activities.

Determine presentation subjects or content.

Analyze information obtained from news sources.

Gather information for news stories.

Coordinate logistics for productions or events.

Develop professional relationships or networks.

Edit written materials.

Operate communications, transmissions, or broadcasting equipment.

Operate still or video cameras or related equipment.

Inform viewers, listeners, or audiences.

Interview others for news or entertainment purposes.

Monitor current trends.

Correspond with customers to answer questions or resolve complaints.

Majors
Major
Agricultural Communication/Journalism
Communication, General
Mass Communication/Media Studies
Journalism
Broadcast Journalism
Photojournalism
Business and Economic Journalism
Cultural Journalism
Science/Health/Environmental Journalism
Journalism, Other
Radio and Television
Political Communication
Sports Communication
International and Intercultural Communication
Interests
Artistic
91%
Importance

Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

Enterprising
65%
Importance

Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.

Investigative
58%
Importance

Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.

Social
55%
Importance

Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

Conventional
39%
Importance

Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

Realistic
22%
Importance

Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

Top 10 Work Styles
Dependability
96%
Importance

Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Attention to Detail
95%
Importance

Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Integrity
92%
Importance

Job requires being honest and ethical.

Initiative
91%
Importance

Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.

Stress Tolerance
91%
Importance

Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations.

Achievement/Effort
89%
Importance

Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.

Self Control
86%
Importance

Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior, even in very difficult situations.

Adaptability/Flexibility
85%
Importance

Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.

Persistence
85%
Importance

Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Cooperation
82%
Importance

Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.

Work Values
Achievement
81%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Recognition
79%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

Independence
74%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Relationships
69%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

Working Conditions
68%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Support
53%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.