Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.
Study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. May study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members.
Salary at 10th Percentile: $52K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $65K
Median Salary: $86K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $111K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $143K
Analyze and interpret data to increase the understanding of human social behavior.
Collect data about the attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in groups, using observation, interviews, and review of documents.
Prepare publications and reports containing research findings.
Plan and conduct research to develop and test theories about societal issues such as crime, group relations, poverty, and aging.
Develop, implement, and evaluate methods of data collection, such as questionnaires or interviews.
Present research findings at professional meetings.
Develop approaches to the solution of groups' problems, based on research findings in sociology and related disciplines.
Direct work of statistical clerks, statisticians, and others who compile and evaluate research data.
Observe group interactions and role affiliations to collect data, identify problems, evaluate progress, and determine the need for additional change.
Consult with and advise individuals such as administrators, social workers, and legislators regarding social issues and policies, as well as the implications of research findings.
Develop problem intervention procedures, using techniques such as interviews, consultations, role playing, and participant observation of group interactions.
Collaborate with research workers in other disciplines.
Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.
Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.
Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.
Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.
Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
Talking to others to convey information effectively.
Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).
The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.
Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.
Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.
Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
Conduct research on social issues.
Interpret research or operational data.
Collect information from people through observation, interviews, or surveys.
Prepare scientific or technical reports or presentations.
Plan social sciences research.
Instruct college students in social sciences or humanities disciplines.
Develop methods of social or economic research.
Present research results to others.
Supervise scientific or technical personnel.
Advise others on matters of public policy.
Design psychological or educational treatment procedures or programs.
Coordinate cross-disciplinary research programs.
How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
How much does this job require sitting?
How often does the job require written letters and memos?
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.
Job requires being honest and ethical.
Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.
Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.