Sociologists

Overview
Job Zone Five: Extensive Preparation Needed
Experience

Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.

Education

Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).

Job Training

Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.

Examples

These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.

Study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. May study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members.

Salary Salary

Salary at 10th Percentile: $52K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $65K
Median Salary: $86K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $111K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $143K

Demand
Career Demand by State Career Demand by State Legend
Core Tasks

Analyze and interpret data to increase the understanding of human social behavior.

Collect data about the attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in groups, using observation, interviews, and review of documents.

Prepare publications and reports containing research findings.

Plan and conduct research to develop and test theories about societal issues such as crime, group relations, poverty, and aging.

Teach sociology.

Develop, implement, and evaluate methods of data collection, such as questionnaires or interviews.

Present research findings at professional meetings.

Develop approaches to the solution of groups' problems, based on research findings in sociology and related disciplines.

Direct work of statistical clerks, statisticians, and others who compile and evaluate research data.

Observe group interactions and role affiliations to collect data, identify problems, evaluate progress, and determine the need for additional change.

Consult with and advise individuals such as administrators, social workers, and legislators regarding social issues and policies, as well as the implications of research findings.

Develop problem intervention procedures, using techniques such as interviews, consultations, role playing, and participant observation of group interactions.

Collaborate with research workers in other disciplines.

Technology Skills
Technology
Example
Hot Technology
Accounting software
Fund accounting software
Analytical or scientific software
SAS
Customer relationship management CRM software
Salesforce software
Data base user interface and query software
Microsoft Access
Desktop publishing software
Microsoft Publisher
Document management software
Adobe Systems Adobe Acrobat
Electronic mail software
Microsoft Outlook
Enterprise resource planning ERP software
SAP software
Graphics or photo imaging software
Microsoft Visio
Information retrieval or search software
Online reference databases
Internet browser software
Web browser software
Map creation software
ESRI ArcGIS software
Object or component oriented development software
R
Object oriented data base management software
Database management system DBMS
Office suite software
Microsoft Office
Operating system software
Microsoft Windows
Presentation software
Microsoft PowerPoint
Project management software
Microsoft Project
Spreadsheet software
Microsoft Excel
Web page creation and editing software
Facebook
Word processing software
Microsoft Word
Tools Used
Tool
Example
Audio and visual presentation and composing equipment
Videoconferencing equipment
Computer Equipment and Accessories
Computer data input scanners
Consumer electronics
Digital audio recorders
Photographic or filming or video equipment
Digital video recorders
Top 10 Knowledge Required
Sociology and Anthropology
100%
Importance

Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.

English Language
89%
Importance

Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.

Education and Training
83%
Importance

Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.

Mathematics
70%
Importance

Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.

Computers and Electronics
60%
Importance

Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.

History and Archeology
60%
Importance

Knowledge of historical events and their causes, indicators, and effects on civilizations and cultures.

Communications and Media
59%
Importance

Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.

Law and Government
59%
Importance

Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process.

Psychology
58%
Importance

Knowledge of human behavior and performance; individual differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; psychological research methods; and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders.

Administration and Management
54%
Importance

Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.

Top 10 Skills
Reading Comprehension
83%
Importance

Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.

Active Listening
80%
Importance

Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.

Social Perceptiveness
80%
Importance

Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react as they do.

Writing
80%
Importance

Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.

Active Learning
78%
Importance

Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.

Critical Thinking
78%
Importance

Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.

Speaking
78%
Importance

Talking to others to convey information effectively.

Judgment and Decision Making
75%
Importance

Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.

Learning Strategies
75%
Importance

Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.

Complex Problem Solving
73%
Importance

Identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions.

Top 10 Abilities
Oral Expression
85%
Importance

The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.

Written Comprehension
85%
Importance

The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.

Oral Comprehension
83%
Importance

The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.

Written Expression
83%
Importance

The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.

Deductive Reasoning
80%
Importance

The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.

Inductive Reasoning
78%
Importance

The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).

Speech Clarity
78%
Importance

The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.

Speech Recognition
73%
Importance

The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.

Near Vision
70%
Importance

The ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer).

Originality
65%
Importance

The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem.

Top 10 Work Activities
Analyzing Data or Information
97%
Importance

Identifying the underlying principles, reasons, or facts of information by breaking down information or data into separate parts.

Getting Information
96%
Importance

Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.

Interacting With Computers
92%
Importance

Using computers and computer systems (including hardware and software) to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.

Interpreting the Meaning of Information for Others
91%
Importance

Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.

Updating and Using Relevant Knowledge
91%
Importance

Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.

Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
89%
Importance

Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.

Processing Information
89%
Importance

Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, or verifying information or data.

Training and Teaching Others
89%
Importance

Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.

Thinking Creatively
87%
Importance

Developing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.

Making Decisions and Solving Problems
79%
Importance

Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.

Detailed Work Activities

Conduct research on social issues.

Interpret research or operational data.

Collect information from people through observation, interviews, or surveys.

Prepare scientific or technical reports or presentations.

Plan social sciences research.

Instruct college students in social sciences or humanities disciplines.

Develop methods of social or economic research.

Present research results to others.

Supervise scientific or technical personnel.

Advise others on matters of public policy.

Design psychological or educational treatment procedures or programs.

Coordinate cross-disciplinary research programs.

Work Context
Electronic Mail

How often do you use electronic mail in this job?

Structured versus Unstructured Work

To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?

Freedom to Make Decisions

How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?

Indoors, Environmentally Controlled

How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?

Face-to-Face Discussions

How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?

Level of Competition

To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?

Importance of Being Exact or Accurate

How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?

Telephone

How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?

Spend Time Sitting

How much does this job require sitting?

Letters and Memos

How often does the job require written letters and memos?

Education
Majors
Major
Research Methodology and Quantitative Methods
Survey Research/Methodology
Criminology
Demography and Population Studies
Applied Demography
Demography, Other
Sociology, General
Applied/Public Sociology
Rural Sociology
Sociology, Other
Urban Studies/Affairs
Sociology and Anthropology
Medical/Health Humanities
Interests
Investigative
100%
Importance

Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.

Artistic
77%
Importance

Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

Social
67%
Importance

Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

Conventional
39%
Importance

Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

Enterprising
24%
Importance

Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.

Realistic
24%
Importance

Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

Top 10 Work Styles
Analytical Thinking
99%
Importance

Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.

Achievement/Effort
95%
Importance

Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.

Persistence
95%
Importance

Job requires persistence in the face of obstacles.

Integrity
94%
Importance

Job requires being honest and ethical.

Initiative
91%
Importance

Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.

Independence
90%
Importance

Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.

Attention to Detail
82%
Importance

Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.

Innovation
82%
Importance

Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas for and answers to work-related problems.

Dependability
80%
Importance

Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.

Adaptability/Flexibility
79%
Importance

Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.

Work Values
Achievement
81%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

Independence
81%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

Recognition
77%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

Working Conditions
74%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

Relationships
48%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

Support
39%
Importance

Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.