Extensive skill, knowledge, and experience are needed for these occupations. Many require more than five years of experience. For example, surgeons must complete four years of college and an additional five to seven years of specialized medical training to be able to do their job.
Most of these occupations require graduate school. For example, they may require a master's degree, and some require a Ph.D., M.D., or J.D. (law degree).
Employees may need some on-the-job training, but most of these occupations assume that the person will already have the required skills, knowledge, work-related experience, and/or training.
These occupations often involve coordinating, training, supervising, or managing the activities of others to accomplish goals. Very advanced communication and organizational skills are required. Examples include pharmacists, lawyers, astronomers, biologists, clergy, neurologists, and veterinarians.
Teach courses in the agricultural sciences. Includes teachers of agronomy, dairy sciences, fisheries management, horticultural sciences, poultry sciences, range management, and agricultural soil conservation. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
Salary at 10th Percentile: $47K
Salary at 25th Percentile: $65K
Median Salary: $90K
Salary at 75th Percentile: $120K
Salary at 90th Percentile: $157K
Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
Supervise laboratory sessions and field work and coordinate laboratory operations.
Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as crop production, plant genetics, and soil chemistry.
Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, assignments, and papers.
Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
Act as advisers to student organizations.
Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
Participate in campus and community events.
Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.
Knowledge of principles and methods for curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.
Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products (both plant and animal) for consumption, including storage/handling techniques.
Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods. This includes alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media.
Knowledge of principles and methods for describing the features of land, sea, and air masses, including their physical characteristics, locations, interrelationships, and distribution of plant, animal, and human life.
Knowledge of arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications.
Knowledge of circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
Teaching others how to do something.
Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things.
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
Talking to others to convey information effectively.
Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making.
Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems.
Communicating effectively in writing as appropriate for the needs of the audience.
Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.
Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one.
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
The ability to speak clearly so others can understand you.
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to produce answers that make sense.
The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand.
The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person.
The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity).
Identifying the educational needs of others, developing formal educational or training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
Providing information to supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates by telephone, in written form, e-mail, or in person.
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others, and maintaining them over time.
Analyzing information and evaluating results to choose the best solution and solve problems.
Keeping up-to-date technically and applying new knowledge to your job.
Identifying information by categorizing, estimating, recognizing differences or similarities, and detecting changes in circumstances or events.
Identifying the developmental needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
Communicating with people outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged in person, in writing, or by telephone or e-mail.
Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be used.
Stay informed about current developments in field of specialization.
Attend training sessions or professional meetings to develop or maintain professional knowledge.
Advise students on academic or career matters.
Supervise student research or internship work.
Supervise laboratory work.
Research topics in area of expertise.
Write articles, books or other original materials in area of expertise.
Teach physical science or mathematics courses at the college level.
Develop instructional materials.
Evaluate student work.
Guide class discussions.
Evaluate effectiveness of educational programs.
Develop instructional objectives.
Administer tests to assess educational needs or progress.
Maintain student records.
Promote educational institutions or programs.
Perform student enrollment or registration activities.
Select educational materials or equipment.
Order instructional or library materials or equipment.
Write grant proposals.
Serve on institutional or departmental committees.
Plan community programs or activities for the general public.
Advise educators on curricula, instructional methods, or policies.
Compile specialized bibliographies or lists of materials.
Direct department activities.
How often do you use electronic mail in this job?
To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
How often does this job require working indoors in environmentally controlled conditions?
How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
How important is it to work with others in a group or team in this job?
How often do you have to perform public speaking in this job?
How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
To what extent does this job require the worker to compete or to be aware of competitive pressures?
How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Job requires being reliable, responsible, and dependable, and fulfilling obligations.
Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction.
Job requires being open to change (positive or negative) and to considerable variety in the workplace.
Job requires analyzing information and using logic to address work-related issues and problems.
Job requires being honest and ethical.
Job requires being pleasant with others on the job and displaying a good-natured, cooperative attitude.
Job requires establishing and maintaining personally challenging achievement goals and exerting effort toward mastering tasks.
Job requires being careful about detail and thorough in completing work tasks.
Job requires developing one's own ways of doing things, guiding oneself with little or no supervision, and depending on oneself to get things done.
Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.